Punctuation and Use of Capital Letters | English Grammar | Hindi | PDF Download |

Punctuation and Use of Capital Letters | English Grammar | Hindi | PDF Download |

परिभाषा / Definition :- जब हम लिखते है तो कुछ चिन्हों (points , stops या marks ) का प्रयोग करते है | इन चिन्हों के सही प्रयोग को Punctuation कहते है |
उचित विराम चिन्हों द्वारा एक sentence को दूसरे sentence से और sentence के एक भाग को दूसरे से अलग किया जा सकता है |

निम्नलिखित प्रमुख विराम चिन्ह है :

(1) Full Stop (.) (2) Comma (,) (3) Inverted Commas ("...") (4) Question Mark (?) (5) Apostrophe (') (6) Capital letter.

(1) Full Stop ( पूर्ण विराम ) [.]

(a) Assertive (विधिसूचक) तथा Imperative(आज्ञार्थक) sentences के अंत में ,
जैसे - Kanti will sing a song.
(b) हस्ताक्षर के नामों के छोटे रूप (initials) के अंत में,
जैसे - M.K. Gandhi, R.N.Tagore , K.M.Munshi.
(c) संक्षिप्त रूप वाले शब्दों (Abbreviations) में ,
जैसे - B.A. , M.A. , M.L.C. , M.P.

(2) Comma (अल्प विराम ) [ , ]

(a) यदि एक वाक्य में एक ही Part of Speech के तीन या तीन से अधिक शब्द साथ - साथ आये हो और अंतिम दो शब्द and द्वारा जुड़े हो , तो उनके बीच में Comma का प्रयोग करते है ,
जैसे - She is intelligent, honest, truthful and hardworking.
(b) Nominative of Address में प्रयुक्त Noun को पृथक करने के लिए ,
जैसे - Boys, listen to me.
(c) Direct Narration में Reporting Part को Reported Speech से अलग करने के लिए Comma का प्रयोग करते है,
जैसे - Mohan said to me, "I write a letter."
(d) Compound sentence में Coordinate Clause को अलग करने में Comma का प्रयोग होता है ,
जैसे - The way was long, and the night was dark.
(e) यदि किसी वाक्य के आरम्भ में Noun Clause हो तो उसे अलग करने के लिए Comma का प्रयोग होता है ,
जैसे - That he will go to Agra, is certain.
(f) Yes तथा No के पश्चात Comma का प्रयोग होता है ;
जैसे - Do you like this book? Yes, I like.
Do you go there? No, I don't.

(3) Inverted Commas["....."]

(a) Direct Narration में वक्ता के शब्दों (Reported speech) के प्रारम्भ और अंत में ;
जैसे - Shanti said to me, "You are a good player."
(b) किसी Quotation को लिखने के लिए ;
जैसे - Napoleon says, " Nothing is impossible in the world."
(c) पुस्तकों के नाम, निबंधो तथा लेखों के शीर्षक , पत्रों , जहाजों के नाम आदि भी Single Inverted Commas के भीतर रखे जाते है ,
जैसे - Have you read 'The Geeta'.

(4) Question Mark (प्रश्नसूचक चिन्ह ) [? ]

इसका प्रयोग सदैव प्रश्न वाचक वाक्यों के अंत में होता है,
जैसे ; Where do you live?
Will You come today?

(5) Apostrophe [']

(a) Nouns के Possessive case (सम्बन्धसूचक ) के लिए;
जैसे - Ravi's book , Ram's pen.
(b) कुछ शब्दों को संक्षिप्त बानने के लिए;
जैसे - E'er = EverI've = I have
(c) संक्षिप्त रूप वाले शब्दों को बहुवचन बानने के लिए ,
जैसे - Many M.A.'s and B.A.'s are unemployed.

(6) Capital Letters

Capital Letters का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित प्रकार से होता है :
(a) वाक्य के आरम्भ में ,
जैसे - Hari goes to the market.
(b) Direct Speech या कहावत का प्रथम शब्द लिखने में ,
जैसे - Mohan said to me, "Where are you coming from?"
(c) Proper Nouns या Proper Adjectives लिखने में प्रथम अक्षर ;
जैसे - Harish, Englsih, Indian, Russian.
(d) दिनों , महीनों, मेलों , त्योहारों के नाम का पहला अक्षर ;
जैसे - Monday, June, April.
(e) पुस्तकों, कवितओं, पत्रों , लेखो, अध्यायों, कहानियों, निबंध , शीर्षक का नाम लिखने में पहला अक्षर ;
जैसे - The Mahabharat, The Geeta, The Hindustan Times.
(f) गलियों , बाजारों और जहाजों का नाम लिखने में पहला अक्षर;
जैसे - Chaura Rasta (सडक ) , Chandni Chowk (बाज़ार)
(g) भाषा के नाम लिखने में पहला अक्षर ;
जैसे - English, Hindi, Sanskrit आदि|

Practice Exercise

Rewrite these sentences using punctuation marks and capital letters when required.
( जहाँ पर आवश्यक हो वहां पर विराम चिन्हों व बड़े अक्षरों का प्रयोग करते हुए इन वाक्यों को पुन: लिखो |
(1) but for the last few days they have stopped this activity
Answer :- But, for the last few days they have stopped this activity.
(2) kalu the bear shook his head angrily
Answer :- Kalu, the bear, shook his head angril.
(3) things have really become worse said hattu sorrowfully
Answer :- "Things have really become worse," said Hattu sorrowfull.
(4) the battalion reached the village but noticed no movement heard no noise
Answer :- The battalion reached the village but noticed no movement, heard no noise.
(5) why are you alone here asked the officer
Answer :- "Why are you alone here?" asked the officer.
(6) long long ago in a small village near khetri lived a family with sixteen children
Answer :- Long, long ago, in a small village near Khetri, lived a family with sixteen children.
(7) at this movement sudden shouts of joy were heard
Answer :- At this movement, sudden shouts of joy were heard.
(8) one moment my boys listen said he eyeing the young woman suspiciously
Answer :- One moment, my boys, listen, said he, eyeing the young woman suspiciously.
(9) the provisions are good I hope
Answer :- The provisions are good, I hope.
(10) yes I have poisoned you
Answer :- Yes, I have poisoned you.
(11) after the war was over her heroic deed became known to the people
Answer :- After the war was over, her heroic deed became known to the people.
(12) there was hardly anything in the room only a few things of daily use some pots pans and beddings
Answer :- There was hardly anything in the room, only a few things of daily use, some pots, pans and beddings.
(13) yes sir I have a son replied chanakya
Answer :- "Yes sir, I have a son", replied Chanakya.
(14) why my child
Answer :- Why, my child?
(15) I am very sorry for my behaviour please forgive me
Answer :- I am very sorry for my behaviour, please forgive me.
(16) look how brave this little girl is
Answer :- Look, how brave this little girl is!
(17) the manager was a grave calm man
Answer :- The manager was a grave, calm man.
(18) how will you have it he said
Answer :- "How will you have it?" he said.
(19) well that is but natural
Answer :- Well, that is but natural.
(20) what does it look like sir
Answer :- What does it look like, sir?
(21) where did you go this time holy man
Answer :- Where did you go this time, Holy man?
(22) yes thats where the birds have their nests
Answer :- Yes, that's where the birds have their nests.
(23) im off
Answer :- I'm off.
(24) uncle has my curd-seller come and gone
Answer :- Uncle, has my curd-seller come and gone?
(25) has left a pot of curds for you
Answer :- He's left a pot of curds for you.
(26) lets go on strike
Answer :- Let's go on strike.
(27) we wont come outside
Answer :- We won't come outside.
(28) the tailor said give me your dress material
Answer :- The tailor said, "Give me your dress material."
(29) with lots of love from anju avaneesh and papa
Answer :- With lots of love from Anju, Avaneesh and Papa.
(30) yes said she with a feeble smile
Answer :- "Yes", said she, with a feeble smile.

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