Conjunctions ( Connectives,Joining words,Linking words ) | Pdf Download | Hindi and English |

Conjunctions ( Connectives,Joining words,Linking words ) | Pdf Download | Hindi and English |

अंग्रेजी व्याकरण में Conjunctions को कई नामो से जाना जाता है, यथा - Connectives , Joining words अथवा Linking words , ये सभी एक ही अर्थ देते है - जोड़ने वाले शब्द | अत: हम कह सकते है कि "Conjunctions वे शब्द होते है जो दो शब्दों अथवा दो वाक्यों को जोड़ते है |"
( A conjunction is a word that joins together sentences and sometimes words. )
जैसे -
1. Anurag and Saurabh are brothers .
( दो शब्दों का जोड़ने का कार्य | )
2. They worked hard but failed.
( दो वाक्यों को जोड़ने का कार्य | )
3. They knew very well that they would not catch the train .
( दो वाक्यों को जोड़ने का कार्य | )

Conjunctions :-

1. either ----- or
2. so ------- that
3. so as to
4. as soon as
5. no sooner ------ than
6. so that
7. in order that
8. as long as
9. so long as

Either ------ or

इसका प्रयोग "या तो - या" के अर्थ में ( दो या दो से अधिक ) विकल्पों के मध्य किया जाता है | प्रथम विकल्प के पूर्व either तथा दूसरे विकल्प के पूर्व or का प्रयोग किया जाता है |

उदाहरण :-

1. Subjects ( कर्ताओ ) को जोड़ना :-

John was sleeping on the bench. Ram was sleeping on the bench.
Either John or Ram was sleeping on the bench.
Note :- यदि either - or से विकल्प के रूप में कर्ताओ को जोड़ा जाता है तो वाक्य में क्रिया का प्रयोग द्वितीय कर्ता अर्थात् or के बाद वाले Subject के person व number के अनुसार किया जाता है , जैसे -
You are going to teach the boy. I am going to teach the boy.
Either You or I are going to teach the boy.

2. Objects ( कर्मो ) को जोड़ना :-

Mohan teaches John. He teaches Mary.
Mohan teaches either John or Mary.

3. Adjectives ( विशेषणों ) को जोड़ना :-

He is intelligent. He is diligent.
He is either intelligent or diligent.

4. Verbs ( क्रियाओ ) को जोड़ना :-

We can eat now .We can eat after the show.
We can either eat now or after the show.

EXERCISE - 1

Join the following pairs of sentences using "either - or".
either - or का प्रयोग करते हुए निम्नलिखित वाक्य युग्मो को जोडिये |

1. your cries can stop him . Your tears can stop him.
Either your cries or Your tears can stop him.

2. I drank orange juice there. I had a cup of tea.
I either drank orange juice there or had a cup of tea.

3. Jack can win. My brother can win.
Either Jack or my brother can win.

4. He will come today. He will come tomorrow.
He will come either today or tomorrow.

5. She will read a book. She will go to the cinema.
She will either read a book or go to the cinema.

6. I shall meet Hari. I shall meet his sister.
I shall meet either Hari or his sister.

7. They will go to Jaipur next week. They will go to jaipur the week after.
They will go to Jaipur either next week or the week after.

8. Pay the rent . Leave the house.
Either Pay the rent or Leave the house.

9. Come in time. Don't come at all.
Either Come in time or don't come at all.

10. Give me this book. Give me that book.
Give me either this book or that one.

So that / in order that :-

So that = ताकि , In order that = ताकि
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को ध्यानपूर्वक देखिये -
1. Finish this so that you can take another.
इसे समाप्त करो ताकि तुम दूसरा ले सको |
2. Show me your book so that I can see what you have done.
मुझे अपनी पुस्तक दिखाओ ताकि मै यह जान संकू कि आपने क्या किया है |
उक्त दोनों ही वाक्य प्रथम वाक्य में किये जा रहे कार्य के कारण को दूसरे वाक्य में व्यक्त कर रहे है |
Note :- सामान्यतया so that तथा in order that के साथ can,will या may का प्रयोग किया जाता है |
Finish this in order that you can take another.
Show me your book in order that I can see what you have done.

EXERCISE - 2

Rewrite the following sentences using "so that/in order that" and the modal auxiliary.
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को "so that/in order that" तथा modal auxiliary का प्रयोग करते हुए पुन: लिखिये |

1. I am working hard at the moment to pass my exam.
I am working hard at the moment so that/in order that I may pass my exam.

2. Rani bought a dictionary to know the meanings of difficult words.
Rani bought a dictionary so that/in order that she might know the meanings of difficult words.

3. I waited for an hour to meet her.
I waited for an hour so that/in order that I might meet her.

4. I do exercise regularly to have excellent health.
I do exercise regularly so that/in order that I may have excellent health.

5. My sister gives English lessons to earn some money.
My sister gives English lessons so that/in order that she may earn some money.

6. I call him to invite him.
I call him so that/in order that I may invite him.

7. She is getting up early to catch the train.
She is getting up early so that/in order that she may catch the train.

8. My dog ran fast to catch the thief.
My dog ran fast so that/in order that it could catch the thief.

9. She is working now to rest afterwards.
She is working now so that/in order that she can rest afterwards.

10. Raman puts it on the table to see it from here.
Raman puts it on the table so that/in order that he can see it from here.

As long as / so long as :-

as long as तथा so long as का प्रयोग शर्त व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है, जैसे -
1. Stay here as long as you like
यही रुको बशर्ते कि तुम्हें पसंद हो |
2. As long as you are in the class, you will have to work.
बशर्ते कि तुम कक्षा में हो तो तुम्हें काम करना होगा |
बगैर अर्थ में परिवर्तन किये इनके साथ so long as का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है , जैसे -
1. Stay here as long as you like.
2. So long as you are in the class,you will have to work.
Note :- so long as / as long as adverb of degree तथा condition है तथा इन्हें conjunction के रूप में प्रयुक्त किया जाता है |

EXERCISE - 3

Joing the following sentences using so long as/as long as :
so long as/as long as का प्रयोग करते हुए निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को जोडिये |

1. He will pay you.You work.
He will pay you as long as you work.

2. Hari will do his lessons. You watch him.
Hari will do his lessons as long as you watch him.

3. The students are quiet . The teacher is in the class.
The students are quiet as long as the teacher is in the class.

4. You can continue to play . There is light.
You can continue to play as long as there is light.

5. You can study in the school . You pay your fees.
You can study in the school as long as you pay your fees.

As soon as / No sooner - than

जब दो कार्य लगभग एक ही साथ आरम्भ हो तो as soon as या no sooner - than का प्रयोग किया जाता है , जैसे -
I reached the school . The bell rang.
As soon as I reached the school , the bell rang.
ज्योंही मै स्कूल पंहुचा कि घंटी बज गई |
या
No sooner did I reach the school than the bell rang.
No sooner ....... than का अर्थ है ज्योकि
पहले उपवाक्य के आरम्भ में No sooner का प्रयोग करते है | No sooner के बाद अधिकतर did का प्रयोग होता है और दुसरे उपवाक्य के प्रारंभ में than का प्रयोग किया जाता है than के बाद Past Indefinite का प्रयोग किया जाता है |

EXERCISE - 4

Rewrite the following sentences using "no sooner - than"
1. As soon as they saw the bear, they ran away.
No sooner did they see the bear than they ran away.

2. As soon as the Brahmin repeated the charm , the treasure poured down.
No sooner did the Brahmin repeat the charm than the treasure poured down.

3. As soon as he entered the house, he took off his coat.
No sooner did he enter the house than he took off his coat.

4. No sooner did the band began to play , we started singing.
As soon as the band begin to play than we started to sing.

5. AS soon as the hunter saw the tiger,he fired a shot at it.
No sooner did the hunter see the tiger than he fired a shot at it.

6. As soon as the school was over the boys rushed home.
No sooner did the school was over than the boys rushed home.

7. As soon as the bell rang , Students entered the class.
No sooner did the bell ring than the students entered the class.

so as to :-

He worked hard. He may get first position.
He worked hard so as to get good marks.
उसने कठोर परिश्रम किया ताकि अच्छे अंक प्राप्त कर सके | so as to का प्रयोग "ताकि" के अर्थ के वर्णित कार्य के द्वारा वांछित लक्ष्य प्राप्ति के लिए किया जाता है |
He ran fast so as to catch the train.

EXERCISE - 5

Join the following sentences using "so as to".

1. Ram got up early. He could go for a morning walk.
Ram got up early so as to go for a morning walk.

2. I bought a bike . I might reach school in time.
I bought a bike so as to reach school in time.

3. They play well . They can win the match.
They play well so as to win the match.

4. I am practising football . I may play it well .
I am practising football so as to play it well .

5. Rajendra has bought a computer. He may learn to operate it.
Rajendra has bought a computer so as to learn to operate it.

6. He sits silently . He can listen to his teacher.
He sits silently so as to listen to his teacher.


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